Psychometric survey to identify factors to support or hinder implementation

Informatics for Improvement
Development of a psychometric instrument to support large-scale implementation

What we know

In order for innovations in healthcare to have a lasting impact, healthcare providers need to embed them in their working routines. This study will further develop and test a survey which seeks to measure pathways by which such embedding takes place, and the factors that can help, delay or prevent it. The Scotland-wide roll-out of a prescribing-safety informatics tool provides a unique opportunity to apply the survey at scale.

Project aim

Develop and test a psychometric survey tool that can be used to support large-scale implementation. 

What this research explores

An examination of both the structural and process aspects of implementation, will provide evidence whether a survey based on the ‘general theory of implementation’ could be used as a reliable and valid instrument for identifying factors that drive or hinder the normalisation of complex interventions.

What this study will add

Study has the potential to offer clinicians, managers and policy makers an easy and robust method to examine and guide the effective implementation of large-scale quality improvement initiatives.


This project is led by Professor Tobias Dreischulte, Professor of Clinical Health Services Research, University of Munich, in conjunction with colleagues from the University of Dundee, Robert Gordon University and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.  This work will involve primary care staff from across Scotland.   

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Improving the normalization of complex interventions: part 1 - development of the NoMAD instrument for assessing implementation work based on normalization process theory (NPT)

Normalization Process Theory